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Soil constituent
Time:2014年02月01日 Concerned about the number of:101

The soil is minerals, organic matter and living organisms and water and air mixture. By weight, minerals accounted for part of the solid phase (soil dry weight) of 90 to 95% or more, about 1 to 10 percent organic matter, soil composition visible to mineral-based. Soil organic matter is present in various forms of organic compounds. In addition to the soil solution, which is contained in the soil water and dissolved substances and suspended matter in general. Plants and microorganisms in soil solution is to absorb nutrients from the soil medium, but also the migration of contaminants in the soil the main way.
Soil particle size of the solid particle size distribution or a combination is called the soil mechanical composition, also known as soil texture. According to the soil mechanical composition of soil can be classified. Our soil texture classified as sand, loam and clay three levels.
Sand: soil particle composition in high sand content of the soil, soil texture of the basic categories. According to the provisions of the international system, sand with sand up to 85-100%, while only 0-15% of fine soil particles. Chinese regulations, sand (particle size of 1-0.05 mm) content greater than 50% sand. Sand less able to retain water and nutrients, nutrient content, soil temperature changes rapidly, but better ventilation, water permeability, and easy to cultivate. In the use of management, drought-resistant varieties should be selected to ensure that water supply, timely irrigation, pay attention to moisture, fertilization should be thin Qin Shi Shi.
Sandy soil utilization review
The soil types strong permeability, good ventilation, aerobic microbial activity dominant, can promote the decomposition of organic matter, organic matter mineralization accelerated. And the soil loose, easy to cultivate. Strong capillary action of soil, water runs fast, "Night Tide" phenomenon. Arable and long term, Yi Li Miao; but low nutrient content and fertilizer performance is poor, the late crop and easy Tuofei premature aging. Currently, the use of arable land has been largely for its utilization rate of 92.3%, two crops a year, usually around 600kg of grain per mu. Future targeted improvement measures: due to soil cultivation, rational application of fertilizer, the implementation of Fertilization; multi-channel organic fertilizer; implementation of farmland shelterbelts in ensuring steady increase in grain production under the premise of the development of yams, watermelon and other crops.
Loam: refers to the clay soil particles, silt, sand content of the soil is moderate. Texture between clay and sand, between the advantages of both clay and sand, ventilation permeable, water retention are better insulation properties, is an ideal agricultural soil. Type of soil, sand containing more called loam (sandy loam), more known as clay loam (clay loam).
Loam is the ideal soil cultivation of medicinal plants, planting a variety of plants to adapt, roots and rhizomes of plants used as medicine more appropriate in loam soil cultivation.
Press the vertical structure of the soil, the upper layer is loam, the lower is the clay (play water, fertilizer effect) best soil fertility, agriculture known as the "Golden mulch."
Mineral clay is an important raw material. A combination of a certain amount of hydrated alumina silicates and alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides, and contains quartz, feldspar, mica, and sulfates, sulfides, carbonates and other impurities. Fine particles of clay minerals, often in the colloidal size range, in crystalline or amorphous, most of the sheet, a small number of tubular rod. After wetting the clay mineral water, malleable, can be deformed under pressure in the smaller and to remain undisturbed for a long time, and a large surface area, with a negatively charged particles, and therefore has good physical adsorption and surface chemical activity, with the other cations the ability to exchange.
Soils containing clay is easy to combine water, minerals and organic nutrients, because the particles are very small relative to the surface of the clay as well as a larger surface of the electrode. In the production of clay with fertilizer, water features, there is "a mess when wet, dry with a knife," said the poor farming.
Soil texture is low soil fertility, good or bad, and pollutants arable capacity size of the basic factors.

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